Dallaire feels he failed in his mission, he was undercut and thwarted on all sides. He could have walked away, turned his back on Rwanda the way the rest of the world did. He knew he couldn't succeed in preventing the genocide, from ending the aptat I have started several reviews for this book and I am simply at a loss for words for how to describe my feelings about it. He knew he couldn't succeed in preventing the genocide, from ending the aptathy of the UN and the USA, but he never,never,never gave up. He is,in my opinion, among the very best examples of humanity, courage, and loaylty to a righteous cause.
The book is extremely graphic and difficult to read and internalize. Dallaire personally dealt with so much gore it's nearly impossible for me to fathom. In fact, I put the book down for months, too cowardly to continue, but I couldn't get Rwanda or Dallaire out of my head. I figured if Romeo Dallaire was willing to relive the hells and horrors he and his beloved soldiers and Rwandans faced in an effort to prevent such evil from happening again, I was honor bound to finish the book and make a difference in humanity myself.
One feels compelled to excuse any shortcoming this book might have, in light of General Dallaire's unquestionable heroism in the face of unbelievable horror. On the human level, this book is excellent, both as a warning against the evils of genocide and as a reminder that there are people still dedicated to justice and peace, even at great personal cost. On the literary level, and on the personal level, this book sucked. The flow of events is alternately dizzyingly fast or numbingly slow; the hu One feels compelled to excuse any shortcoming this book might have, in light of General Dallaire's unquestionable heroism in the face of unbelievable horror.
The flow of events is alternately dizzyingly fast or numbingly slow; the human element of the story obscured by logy politicking; the hero of the story an irritating saint who is all too aware of his saintliness. I am glad that a man like Dallaire exists; I wish someone else had told his story. Jun 28, Liesel rated it it was amazing. This book, though heavy in military jargon and very long, was absolutely one of the most stunning books I have ever read. It was gripping, and completely chilling. It is worth your time to read this book.
I plan to read it again soon. It is the rage I saw in the eyes of the teenage Interahamwe militiamen in Rwanda, it is the rage I sensed in the hearts of the children of Sierra Leone, it is the rage I felt in crowds of ordinary civilians in Rwanda, and it is the rage that resulted in September Human beings who have no rights, no security, no future, no hope and no means to survi Finished reading: Human beings who have no rights, no security, no future, no hope and no means to survive are a desperate group who will do desperate things to take what they believe they need and deserve.
It was really brave of him to write down his story and even though it took me a long time to finish this read, I'm glad I had the opportunity to learn more about his experience and deepen my knowledge about the genocide in Rwanda. It's not an easy story to read and actually quite depressing, but if you are interested in the theme Shake Hands With The Devil does have an interesting perspective. What he thought was a simple peacekeeping mission slowly turned into a bloody nightmare And he has his hands tied as he witnesses the slaughter of Dallaire recreates the events that lead to the genocide and explains how humanity failed to stop it despite timely warnings The international community preferring to turn their backs on the problem rather than act accordingly.
He also explains the difficulties he had to get the proper equipment sent to him and the treacherous politics around the whole affair Not denying his own failure and weaknesses, Dallaire helps make the reader understand what happened during the mission and where it went wrong. Shake Hands With The Devil is a truly intriguing memoir and a heartbreaking account of the genocide in Rwanda. Find more of my reviews here. Apr 13, Shourie Bannai rated it it was amazing. This is more of a indictment document rather than a book.
The accusation by an unassuming, innocent, devoted army man who was helplessly put into his position to bear witness to the ugliest face of human cruelty on an unimaginable scale. I am still at loss of words how this brave man has survived after all that he has been through, when just reading the book has made me unimaginably melancholic, at loss for emotions. This book is not for those carefree souls and who cherish that attitude because This is more of a indictment document rather than a book. This book is not for those carefree souls and who cherish that attitude because it might very well lead anyone into that spiral of never ending guilt.
Just don't god damn read this book, only understand we humans failed to protect and stand up for 8,00, of our brothers and sisters when they were being slaughtered , most of them probably thinking at last that how lucky they were to die and get rid of the misery around them, when their fellow humans had abandoned them to their fate. And this poor general who was told that it was his duty to save all these people, bears the burnt of our failure. I can't really put my feeling together, I am not sure I am feeling anything anymore.
God damn whatever it is. Mar 24, Michael Blackmer rated it it was amazing Shelves: This is a must read if one wants to understand just how badly the leadership of the world let Rwanda and UN Peacekeepers down during the Genocide. I had to put this book down several times and then return to it because I would get so angry and disappointed in how support was nonexistent for people being exterminated in Rwanda and for the multi-national peacekeepers who put their lives on the line or lost their lives to do what they could in spite of the lack of support from headquarters in New This is a must read if one wants to understand just how badly the leadership of the world let Rwanda and UN Peacekeepers down during the Genocide.
I had to put this book down several times and then return to it because I would get so angry and disappointed in how support was nonexistent for people being exterminated in Rwanda and for the multi-national peacekeepers who put their lives on the line or lost their lives to do what they could in spite of the lack of support from headquarters in New York UN Headquarters. Shake Hands With the Devil is a frustrating, horrifying and terribly important book, written by a reluctant eyewitness to the Rwandan Genocide: I've spent years wondering why we keep ourselves committed to the charade that the UN is an impartial arbiter, not least of all when Cuba and China are allowed to wag their fingers at us in Canada as despicable human rights abusers.
What I found most remarkable in this book is that Dallaire concludes that the UN is a vital instrument that simply requires a renaissance, a recommitment to its founding principles. As I hope to never experience the General's intimate knowledge of the UN's indifference and its barbaric consequences, I will defer to his analysis.
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That book left me wondering about the root causes of the genocide, primarily because it failed to explain how neighbours could take up machetes against neighbours, slaughtering the people that they have lived amongst for years. Naturally the answer to that question is complicated and Dallaire offers some insight, beginning with his angry contemplation upon the withdrawal of Belgian troops after ten of their soldiers were murdered: Images of my father and father-in-law wearing their Second World War battledress seemed to leap out of the darkening sky.
They looked tired, muddy and haggard and were in the midst of fighting for the liberation of Belgium. As Canadian soldiers fought tooth and nail against the Germans, King Baudoin of Belgium and his ruthless lackeys kept millions of black Africans in Rwanda and all of the Great Lakes region of central Africa under subjugation, raping these countries of their natural resources…Fifty years after my mentors had fought in Europe, I had been left here with a ragtag force to witness a crime against humanity that the Belgians had unwittingly laid the spadework for.
So there are roots for the conflict that go back to colonialism but Dallaire also has a harsh analysis of the modern citizens of Rwanda: To my mind their crimes had made them inhuman, turned them into machines made of flesh that imitated the motions of being human. The perpetrators on both sides had their "justifications". For the Hutus, insecurity and racism had been artfully engineered into hate and violent reaction.
In the RPF's case, it was willing to fight to win a homeland at all costs, and its soldiers' rage against the genocide transformed them into machines. And although it was the Hutu extremists who committed the genocide, Dallaire knows that the RPF leader, Paul Kagame, intentionally allowed many thousands of his fellow Tutsis to be sacrificed during his slow advance, for his own political reasons: I found myself thinking such dire thoughts as whether the campaign and the genocide had been orchestrated to clear the way for Rwanda's return to the pre status quo in which Tutsis had called all the shots.
Had the Hutu extremists been bigger dupes than I? Ten years later, I still can't put these troubling questions to rest, especially in light of what has happened to the region since. Despite losses on both sides of the conflict, Dallaire clearly states that there is no moral equivalence, saying: The myth of the "double genocide" was now in full swing -- some people actually bought the line that the racial war had cut both ways.
In my further research I've found that there are people who believe it was the RPF, or other radical Tutsis, who shot down President Habyarimana's plane initially, provoking the massacre of their own people. I will also accept his analysis of the failure of the UN to appropriately respond: No amount of cash and aid will ever wash its hands clean of Rwandan blood. That is a damning statement, for sure, but backed up with Dallaire's detailed account of his daily experiences -- his reports to the UN and their slow and indifferent responses -- it seems ultimately fair. After Somalia and Bosnia, the West had no stomach for intervention in Central Africa and as the cynical said at the time, Rwanda has no oil or minerals or strategic position that makes the country important.
Currently, after Iraq and Afghanistan, we have no stomach to intervene in Syria -- and what if we did? Would we be handing the country over to the jihadi extremists? This situation seems doomed to follow in Rwanda's footsteps -- if we had intervened early and overwhelmingly, there was a chance for the moderates to have assumed control, but it's too late for that now. With over dead and 7 million Syrians displaced, at what point are we morally obligated to intervene despite the consequences? Why is Russia pulling all the strings at the UN over this?
Isn't this more proof that the UN just isn't workable? The following two excerpts describe some of the horror of the Rwandan Genocide, reader beware: The Interhamwe made a habit of killing young Tutsi children, in front of their parents, by first cutting off one arm, then the other. They would then gash the neck with a machete to bleed the child slowly to death but, while they were still alive, they would cut off the private parts and throw them at the faces of the terrified parents, who would then be murdered with greater dispatch. For a long time I completely wiped the death masks of raped and sexually mutilated girls and women from my mind as if what had been done to them was the last thing that would send me over the edge.
But if you looked, you could see the evidence, even in the whitened skeletons. The legs bent and apart. A broken bottle, a rough branch, even a knife between them Some male corpses had their genitals cut off, but many women and young girls had their breasts chopped off and their genitals crudely cut apart.
They died in a position of total vulnerability, flat on their backs, with their legs bent and knees wide apart. It was the expressions on their dead faces that assaulted me the most, a frieze of shock, pain and humiliation. For many years after I came home, I banished the memories of those faces from my mind, but they have come back, all too clearly.
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What this means for the future of Rwanda can't be imagined. Many signs point to the fact that the youth of the Third World will no longer tolerate living in circumstances that give them no hope for the future. From the young boys I met in the demobilization camps in Sierra Leone to the suicide bombers of Palestine and Chechnya, to the young terrorists who fly planes into the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, we can no longer afford to ignore them.
We have to take concrete steps to remove the causes of their rage, or we have to be prepared to suffer the consequences. This leads me back in a circle to where I began: I don't know if, despite all of the historical information, Shake Hands With the Devil fully explains to me how neighbours could massacre each other in such an inhuman fashion, and failing this understanding, how can such a horror show be prevented from happening again? I sincerely hope that Dallaire's faith in the UN and its ability to move forward into a "Century of Humanity" is well placed since at this point it's the only show in town.
This is a book that left me shaken, feeling powerless, but I am not sorry to have read it. Apr 16, Ben rated it it was amazing Shelves: When he first arrived in Rwanda, he was brimming with confidence at the prospect of successfully maintaining the peace and ushering in the country's transitional government. What he encountered, however, was a UN administration that was distracted by other theaters and hamstrung by a bewildering bureaucracy, and Western Powers unwilling to commit even a single soldier or capital assistance to the mission. Most stunning and heart-wrenching of all, in January of three months before the genocide began Dallaire was informed by a reliable source that Hutu extremists were planning a well-coordinated extermination of the Tutsi minority.
He notified Kofi Annan, who effectively ignored this, instructed Dallaire to do nothing, and the latter watched helplessly as , Rwandans were murdered. Dallaire said that he was later told by a US staffer that it would take the deaths of 86, Rwandans to justify the loss of one US soldier. Where was this calculation during the recent Iraq war, in which thousands of soldiers died for a completely fabricated justification? Dallaire says he wrote this book to bring to the world's attention the failure of the international community to recognize a humanitarian crisis and to respond appropriately, in the fervent hope that this will never happen again.
I would like to share this hope, but were not the words "Never again" already uttered outside the death camps of Auchwitz close to 70 years ago? Dallaire is heroic for providing us with this memoir, especially considering how obviously painful it was for him to witness the horror of those months in Rwanda. I just can't shake the feeling, however, that the people who make the decisions of international intervention are not listening.
May 20, Darren rated it it was amazing. I borrowed this book from my oldest brothers wife. I enjoyed reading it. It is a good book about the military from Canada that served overseas in It is a well written. It makes a person wonder what it was like back then what it would be like to be in the army,.
Sep 27, Regina Lindsey rated it really liked it. Shake Hands with the Devil is his chronicle of events leading up to the outbreak of violence, events during those tumultuous days, and a reflection of the leadership in charge of keeping peace. I typically stay away from memoirs. As humans very few of us are able to look at ourselves objectively. That is particularly true of military memoirs. I often find them to be self-aggrandizing, leaving me frustrated and sighing, "yeah, okay".
Dallaire does not approach his story in that manner. It is evident he is haunted by the question of "what could I have done differently? He feels the loss of life keenly, and he comes across as very humble. His story is an important one because it deals with the larger political context both in Rwanda itself and within the UN that many people don't understand.
Dallaire helped me connect the dots. Most writing will point to the downing of President Habyarimana's a Hutu plane on April 6, , as the impetus for the violence. It is widely assumed that Tutsi rebels shot down the plane. Nothing about this has EVER made sense to me. There was no way the Tutsi's would have benefited from downing the plane. Dallaire provides sound evidence that Habyarimana had lost control of his power and that Hutus may have been the culprit in order to provide rationale for a well-planned execution plan of the Tutsi that had probably been in place as much as six months prior to the downing of the plane.
In my mind that scenario makes much more sense. It also explains the slaughter of the Dutch soldiers. But, Dallaire was not always objective. Understandably, Dallaire expresses a great deal of frustration with the UN and the superpowers of the world. That frustration is warranted. But, he seems to be harsher on some than others. The UN went into Rwanda under a Chapter 6 agreement, a peacekeeping resolution.
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However, with the language of the resolution related to Rwanda when Dallaire learned in January, four months prior to the outbreak of violence, of the stock piling of weapons by the Hutu's it would've been within his mandate to address the situation. One of his mandates was to disarm both sides. However, Kofi Annan in no uncertain terms, ordered Dallaire to back down. Yet, Dallaire has nothing but praises for Annan. Additionally, while I want to make clear in no uncertain terms that more should have done by powers like the US to contribute to this effort, context is important.
It is important to highlight the fact that the US was virtually absent for this operation. Dallaire does mention Somalia a time or two. Merely mentioning it is not enough. Like it or not, the debacle in Somolia was important context for Clinton's decision during this time. It is no excuse, but it does warrant examination particularly within the larger context of whether or not the UN is effective. The book is a difficult read. You cannot read a book on this period without having your stomach turn. It is also difficult, I think, for some to read because it reads almost like a diary - explanation day by day of what was occurring.
However, Rwanda deserves much more attention that it gets. Just think about it - at least , Tutsi's murdered by their neighbors over the course of days. At the conclusion of WWII the world cried, "never again! Dallaire decided to write the book as a means to dealing with his demons. I certainly hope he has found some peace. It is crystal clear that he loved the country and its people from the start. He was simply given a mandate that was absolutely impossible to realize with the resources granted him by the international community.
Jan 24, Tim rated it it was amazing. General Dallaire recounts the events leading up to the Rwandan genocide from his perspective as a UN commandeer in charge of implementing a little known peace treaty between Rwandan parties - the implementation if it had been carried out could have prevented a deliberate carefully planned attempt by extremists to eradicate a portion of the country's population and come to power.
As carefully spelled out in his narrative, this was not a "spontaneous spasm of horrific violence" as often characteriz General Dallaire recounts the events leading up to the Rwandan genocide from his perspective as a UN commandeer in charge of implementing a little known peace treaty between Rwandan parties - the implementation if it had been carried out could have prevented a deliberate carefully planned attempt by extremists to eradicate a portion of the country's population and come to power.
As carefully spelled out in his narrative, this was not a "spontaneous spasm of horrific violence" as often characterized by the media at the time. It was a result of indifference by those countries who could have made a serious effort to bring about peace in this land, a timid UN leadership, intransigence on the more moderate RPF, though he carefully points out that the immediate cause was Hutu extremists. For want of a nail the shoe was lost. For want of a shoe the horse was lost.
For want of a horse the rider was lost. For want of a rider the battle was lost. For want of a battle the kingdom was lost. This describes, from the General's perspective, the many small opportunities the UN had and ignored - but of course the UN being made up of nations who had the resources and ability to intervene.
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Peacekeepers promised but not delivered, equipment sent but not working, security council proclamations watered down, delayed, discarded, etc, etc, - all of these acts of omission or negligence were watched closely by the extremists until they apparently agreed the West and UN would not react in the face of their own actions. It reminds me of an observation from a reader to the Christian Science Monitor in after an eruption of violence in Burundi where 20, lives were lost. His words were, as I remember, "if these had been zebras or elephants or some other exotic African animal, I suspect the outcry of the West would have been deafening, but for a frenzied killing of Africans themselves, relative silence.
The General himself a Canadian Quebecois suffered PTSD from his helpless experience there, and it took him years after before sufficiently recovering. He eventually realized that what he could still do is bear witness as to why and how this genocide occurred. The book excels in doing just that. Shake Hands with the Devil is a compelling memoir that tells the tale of General Romeo Dallaire and his experiences during the Rwandan genocide. Dallaire provides a first0hand account of the atrocities that he experienced in Rwanda, while continuously receiving the same order from the United Nations: Before I read this book, my dream was to one day work for the United Nations, to work against violence and corruption, and foster peace and development.
Dallaire's novel completely shatt Shake Hands with the Devil is a compelling memoir that tells the tale of General Romeo Dallaire and his experiences during the Rwandan genocide. Dallaire's novel completely shattered those dreams, as I was introduced to the inner workings of the UN and its inability to act in situations such as Rwanda. I was horrified that Dallaire was ordered to stay put and do nothing to quell the genocide that was occurring right in from of him.
I was indignant that a man who was sent on a simple peacekeeping mission was forced to watch , people die without being able to do anything about it. I was disgusted with the bureaucracy of the UN, and the fact that nobody cared about a tiny little country called Rwanda. Dallaire tells his story to get an important point across: Never again can the world sit by and let such a disastrous event take place. Never again will we watch , people die in days and take no action to stop it, no matter in which country it takes place.
We can no longer just sit by and watch as countries tear themselves apart in civil war, resulting in the deaths of thousands. Having seen Dallaire speak at the University of Ottawa, I can tell that he is passionate about these issues. His experience in Rwanda left him suicidal and depressed. Going through this journey with him was extremely emotional, but what it really did was make me want to take action. Whether it was from inside the UN, or through a non-profit, or simply through writing on these issues, anything can help to spread the word and make sure this never happens again.
This book is an important read for any student in international development, or anybody interested in the United Nations and its politics.
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Jan 01, AB rated it liked it. I read this book in December and in June I still can't help but keep thinking about it. This book contains many parts, all of which are compelling. Its Canada and Canadians on the world stage in modernity. It's the effects of colonialism and racism on struggling sub saharan Africa. And most importantly it's a story of a UN peace corps facing challenges, hardships and interactions with a disinterested bureaucracy that blends into a hellish monotony whose routine is interrupted by moment I read this book in December and in June I still can't help but keep thinking about it.
And most importantly it's a story of a UN peace corps facing challenges, hardships and interactions with a disinterested bureaucracy that blends into a hellish monotony whose routine is interrupted by moments of complete horror. I clearly remember learning about the Rawandan genocide and Dallaire in high school as well as watching the movie adaption of this book.
Still, Shake Hands with the Devil was a very hard and frustrating read. Would dalliares vision have worked? With hindsight we can always say we should have done x instead of y but no amount of posturing on who was right and wrong will bring back the many rawandans killed. This book is compelling, making me really question the roles the developed world plays on the world stage. How does post imperialism and decolonization movements effect our reactions and intentions? Who decides what lives are worth saving or whose fledging governments should be assisted?
But it isn't a book that screams at you and blames you for imperialism or lack of interest. Instead, dallaire shows the that the UN and the world has the capability to assist each other. This book doesn't blame a single person but shows how a series of events, individuals and organizations allowed a genocide to go on unabated for months.
This is something that should be read by Canadians. This is a defining point for Canada as we continue to focus and place ourselves on the forefront of peace keeping missions. For others, it is an important book on the role the west will forever play in the developing world Dallaire's book is a powerful call to action that damns the so called civilised world for its failure to act in the face of Rwanda'a genocide. Dallaire and his companions stand out as rare beacons of light amongst those who refused to act to save Rwanda. It was a heart wrenching book to read, because it becomes clear that the genocide could have been stopped, but none of the so-called great powers cared, because they did not feel that Rwanda was worth saving.
As Dallaire quotes the American offic Dallaire's book is a powerful call to action that damns the so called civilised world for its failure to act in the face of Rwanda'a genocide. As Dallaire quotes the American officer, it would take Rwandan deaths to justify the death of an American soldier, whereas in Iraq, it takes only the US's desire for cheap gas for their SUVs to justify the death of American soldiers. Dallaire's brutally honest accout of his ongoing struggle with his inner demons that are legacy of his service in Rwanda, only increase my admiration for him.
For me, he is a true hero and a true soldier in a time when so many people in uniform are more politician than soldier such as Lewis MacKenzie. Dallaire is a model for us to follow, so that humanity will not fail again, I can only that we can live up to his, and the others who served under his command, example. As I read of the courage of his troops, especially the Ghanaians and the Tunisians and especially the example of colonel "Tiko" Tikola, I was reminded that courage is not limited to the First world, yet we hear so little about their bravery.
UN soldiers made many daring rescues, placing their lives on the line to save civilians from murder by machete or machine gun. He chaired meetings of the belligerents, fostered formal and informal agreements between them including the Kigali Weapons Secure Area agreement early on and conveyed important messages between the leaders.
After the genocide had been raging for several weeks for all the world to see, he finally received a robust mandate from New York but not the forces needed to implement it. Virtually no nation Canada having been the notable exception was willing to send its soldiers into this raging conflict. Belgium had withdrawn its contingent after suffering a lethal blow—ten paratroopers deliberately targeted on the first day of the genocide. Still Dallaire worked away, fraying both his forces and his wits, until both seemed to give way. When his UN military observers UNMOs eventually questioned whether their patrols were worth the risks they entailed, he curtailed these missions.
And when he noticed that, due in part to his inability to sleep, he was frequently daydreaming, losing his temper and repeating himself to his soldiers, he asked to be relieved early. The last month in Rwanda was bittersweet for Dallaire.
Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda
He witnessed the end of the most brutal phase of the genocide after the Rwandese Patriotic Front took Kigali on July 4 though he wondered why they did not capture Kigali sooner. In telling his story, Dallaire has done the United Nations and the world a great service. He describes many of the troubles and tensions routinely found in UN peacekeeping operations that desperately need to be fixed and gradually are being fixed , problems aggravated by the extreme stress of conditions in Rwanda.
First, there was the headquarters-field tension. A risk-averse leadership in New York proved unwilling to give UNAMIR flexibility in the interpretation of its mandate and DPKO provided minimal information or feedback to the peacekeepers in the field, leading Dallaire to believe that the belligerents were better informed than he about intentions in New York.
Perhaps as a result of the Rwanda experience, the trend has been to make peacekeeping more robust or muscular, though this has meant, in some cases, shifting responsibility from the UN to organizations like NATO. In New York, a hands-off and apparently uncaring Security Council, led by its Permanent members, did not even try to prevent the oncoming genocide. Memory of this negative experience may have influenced subsequent US policy. In , for instance, Secretary of State Colin Powell would proudly point out that the US was the first nation to label the killings in Darfur, Sudan, as a genocide, though there has been, at the time of writing, little US commitment to action.
No doubt there was, and there remains, a deplorable lack of political will in the Security Council to take creative and forceful action to prevent atrocities, especially in Africa. Within the field mission itself, Dallaire felt a number of tensions and failings. SRSG Jacques-Roger Booh-Booh, who had been appointed by Boutros Boutros-Ghali, acted in ways partial to Hutu leaders, and rarely took the initiative, eventually isolating himself and his political staff from the rest of the mission. DPKO is currently instituting a civilian recruitment system where career paths can be made within UN peacekeeping so that good personnel are retained while poor ones are dropped.
As in most peacekeeping missions, the national contingents arrive with wildly varying attitudes, training, leadership, equipment, competencies and commitments. Dallaire had to contend with the aggressive and colonial attitudes of some Belgian soldiers, though the Belgian contingent formed the backbone of his mission. The Belgian Senate later advocated the policy that Belgium should not send peacekeepers to its former colonies. The Belgian contingent commander, Colonel Luc Marchal, however, is portrayed as a very competent, dependable and committed Kigali sector commander, undeserving of the court-martial he received after his return to Belgium which, fortunately, ended in acquittal.
The Bangladeshi contingent came without the requisite equipment and, even more tragic, without permission to take the required risks.
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It became a burden on the mission and was evacuated at the outset of the genocide, embarrassing the UN even in the hasty and overly enthusiastic manner of its withdrawal. The Bangladeshi medical platoon was an exception, headed by a superb surgeon who performed marvels in an overwhelmed King Faisal Hospital. The Ghanaians receive uniform praise from Dallaire for courage, commitment and staying power. While Canada received poor marks for mission support prior to the genocide it was top of the class afterwards, as the only country to reinforce the mission in April and May p.
The risky Canadian Hercules flights into Kigali became the life-line of the mission during the genocide. The Canadian military observers and humanitarian teams also performed yeomen service. In the book, Dallaire admits to some personal failings, though this was not the mea culpa that he first thought of writing.
He wonders if he was adequately trained and experienced enough, this being his first field command and his first tour in Africa. In a bizarre turn, he even wonders if he was duped by the RPF and its leader Paul Kagame as the possible hidden hand behind the whole sordid affair, though all the evidence in the book points towards the Hutu extremists as sole authors and perpetrators of the genocide.